PowerShell Pipeline

Using PowerShell To Work with the DNS Client

Replace your legacy ipconfig switches with these cmdlets in the DNSClient module.

With the addition of the DNSClient module in PowerShell, you can take some of the old ipconfig commands that we know and love and make them more robust using PowerShell.

Also available are a number of other cmdlets within the module that you might be able to find a use for in your day-to-day operations.

First, let's take a look at all of the cmdlets which are available within the DNSClient module.

PS C:\> Get-Command -Module DNSClient

CommandType     Name                                               Version    Source                           
-----------     ----                                               -------    ------                           
Function        Add-DnsClientNrptRule                              1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Clear-DnsClientCache                               1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClient                                      1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientCache                                 1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientGlobalSetting                         1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientNrptGlobal                            1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientNrptPolicy                            1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientNrptRule                              1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Get-DnsClientServerAddress                         1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Register-DnsClient                                 1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Remove-DnsClientNrptRule                           1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Set-DnsClient                                      1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Set-DnsClientGlobalSetting                         1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Set-DnsClientNrptGlobal                            1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Set-DnsClientNrptRule                              1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Function        Set-DnsClientServerAddress                         1.0.0.0    DNSClient                        
Cmdlet          Resolve-DnsName                                    1.0.0.0    DNSClient

In this module, we have 17 cmdlets available to us. For this article, I will leave out the cmdlets dealing with Nrtp and focus more on the cmdlets that provide familiar information that we have seen in the past using ipconfig and one of its many switches.

If you wanted to view the DNS cache that you have on your system, you would have to usually use the /DisplayDNS switch on ipconfig.

PS C:\> ipconfig /displaydns

Windows IP Configuration

    65.186.168.192.in-addr.arpa
    ----------------------------------------
    Record Name . . . . . : 65.186.168.192.in-addr.arpa.
    Record Type . . . . . : 12
    Time To Live  . . . . : 86400
    Data Length . . . . . : 8
    Section . . . . . . . : Answer
    PTR Record  . . . . . : PROX-PC.mshome.net


    prox-pc.mshome.net
    ----------------------------------------
    No records of type AAAA


    prox-pc.mshome.net
    ----------------------------------------
    Record Name . . . . . : PROX-PC.mshome.net
    Record Type . . . . . : 1
    Time To Live  . . . . : 86400
    Data Length . . . . . : 4
    Section . . . . . . . : Answer
    A (Host) Record . . . : 192.168.186.65

While it does provide the information that we might be interested in, it is being presented to us as text on the console, not something that we can easily work with unless you want to bring out the RegEx wizards to start making this data more manageable. Instead, we can use the Get-DNSClientCache cmdlet and see a much friendlier display of objects that we can then filter and sort as needed.

PS C:\> Get-DnsClientCache

Entry                     RecordName                Record Status    Section TimeTo Data   Data                
                                                    Type                     Live   Length                     
-----                     ----------                ------ ------    ------- ------ ------ ----                
65.186.168.192.in-addr... 65.186.168.192.in-addr... PTR    Success   Answer   86400      8 PROX-PC.mshome.net  
prox-pc.mshome.net        PROX-PC.mshome.net        A      Success   Answer   86400      4 192.168.186.65      
prox-pc.mshome.net                                  AAAA   NoRecords

What about clearing out the cache? Using ipconfig, we would make use of the /flushdns switch to perform this operation.

PS C:\> ipconfig /flushdns

Windows IP Configuration

Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache.

With the Clear-DNSClientCache cmdlet, we simply run the command (there are no parameters necessary here unless you use -Verbose) and we will have accomplished the same action as we did running the ipconfig command.

PS C:\> Clear-DnsClientCache -Verbose
VERBOSE: The specified name resolution records cached on this machine will be removed.
Subsequent name resolutions may return up-to-date information.

Assuming that you allow your systems to register their own records on a DNS server, then you might know of using ipconfig /registerdns to force the client to register its records in DNS. Remember that you will need to run your console in an elevated prompt in order for this to work properly.

PS C:\> ipconfig /registerdns

Windows IP Configuration

Registration of the DNS resource records for all adapters of this computer has been initiated. Any errors will b
e reported in the Event Viewer in 15 minutes.

The same approach in PowerShell is to use Register-DNSClient, again without any parameters, to register the system to the DNS server. Similar to my example with clearing the cache, I am using Verbose to show a message of what is happening when running the cmdlet.

PS C:\> Register-DnsClient -Verbose
VERBOSE: This machine's DNS records will be updated on the DNS server.
This may affect the results of DNS queries for this machine.

A couple of other cmdlets that are not easily viewable when using ipconfig /all are the Get-DNSClient and Get-DnsClientServerAddress cmdlets. In fact, you won't be able to find anything when using ipconfig when you use Get-DNSClient.

PS C:\> Get-DnsClient

InterfaceAlias               Interface ConnectionSpecificSuffix ConnectionSpecificSuffix RegisterThisConn UseSuffixWhen
                             Index                              SearchList               ectionsAddress   Registering  
--------------               --------- ------------------------ ------------------------ ---------------- -------------
vEthernet (Internal)                 8                          {}                       True             True         
vEthernet (Default Switch)          22                          {}                       False            False        
vEthernet (External)                18                          {}                       True             False        
Local Area Connection* 2            13                          {}                       True             True         
Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1          1                          {}                       True             True

Lastly, using Get-DNSClientServerAddress is a great way to quickly see what each of your adapters have configured for DNS.

PS C:\> Get-DnsClientServerAddress

InterfaceAlias               Interface Address ServerAddresses                                                                                                                  
                             Index     Family                                                                                                                                   
--------------               --------- ------- ---------------                                                                                                                  
vEthernet (Internal)                 8 IPv4    {}                                                                                                                               
vEthernet (Internal)                 8 IPv6    {}                                                                                                                               
vEthernet (Default Switch)          22 IPv4    {}                                                                                                                               
vEthernet (Default Switch)          22 IPv6    {fec0:0:0:ffff::1, fec0:0:0:ffff::2, fec0:0:0:ffff::3}                                                                           
vEthernet (External)                18 IPv4    {192.168.1.1}                                                                                                                    
vEthernet (External)                18 IPv6    {}                                                                                                                               
Local Area Connection* 2            13 IPv4    {}                                                                                                                               
Local Area Connection* 2            13 IPv6    {fec0:0:0:ffff::1, fec0:0:0:ffff::2, fec0:0:0:ffff::3}                                                                           
Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1          1 IPv4    {}                                                                                                                               
Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1          1 IPv6    {fec0:0:0:ffff::1, fec0:0:0:ffff::2, fec0:0:0:ffff::3}

So with that, we have taken a quick look at some of the cmdlets which are in the DNSClient module. Some of these will instantly be great tools in your toolbox and will replace the legacy ipconfig switches with cmdlets that display objects to help with filtering data versus working with text output.

About the Author

Boe Prox is a Microsoft MVP in Windows PowerShell and a Senior Windows System Administrator. He has worked in the IT field since 2003, and he supports a variety of different platforms. He is a contributing author in PowerShell Deep Dives with chapters about WSUS and TCP communication. He is a moderator on the Hey, Scripting Guy! forum, and he has been a judge for the Scripting Games. He has presented talks on the topics of WSUS and PowerShell as well as runspaces to PowerShell user groups. He is an Honorary Scripting Guy, and he has submitted a number of posts as a to Microsoft's Hey, Scripting Guy! He also has a number of open source projects available on Codeplex and GitHub. His personal blog is at http://learn-powershell.net.

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