Windows Tip Sheet

DSQuery, And Then Some

DSQuery User gives up lots of info, but what if you want more? There is a way to wring out more info with this nifty trick.

I was helping out an administrator not too long ago who was trying to find user accounts based on some specific user properties. My first thought for a quick and easy solution was to use DSQuery User. Problem was, the properties he wanted aren't part of the default query set. But there's another way using a custom DSQuery command. The basic syntax is:

Dsquery * -filter Your-LDAP-Filter

Creating the LDAP query filter is easier than you think. Once you get the basics worked out, you can copy, paste and tweak. Here are some examples for you to try (hopefully in your test lab). All of the dsquery commands are one-line commands and all quotes should be straight quotes.

The following essentially dumps all user objects in your domain to a text file:

dsquery * -filter "(&(objectcategory=person)(objectclass=user))" -limit 0 -attr * >>userexport.txt

It's a good idea, when querying for user objects, to use the objectcategory and objectclass combination. This should ensure you get user accounts and not any other object that may be based on the user class. The attr parameter followed by the asterisk instructs the command to return ALL attributes.

The output will be redirected to the text file userexport.txt. This gets you basically the same information as the CSVDE command, but in a tab-delimited format. Ususally you won't want or need that much information.

Here's how you would get something a little more limited:

dsquery * -filter "(&(objectcategory=person)(objectclass=user))" -limit 0 -attr distinguishedname samaccountname description department title >> exportedusers.txt

This expression finds all users and list their distinguishedname, SAMAccountname, description, department and title in a tab-delimited format.
What if you want to limit your search to a particular oU:

dsquery * "ou=Employees,DC=Mycompany,DC=local" -filter "(&(objectcategory=person)(objectclass=user))" -limit 0 -attr distinguishedname samaccountname description department title

Are you starting to see how easy this is?

Finally, you can also run a custom search where some criteria must be met. In this example, the only user accounts that are returned are those with a department set to "Sales":

dsquery * -filter "(&(objectcategory=person)(objectclass=user)(department=Sales))"

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Because I didn't specify any properties, the users' distinguished name is returned. But that's fine because I can then pipe the result of this command to DSMod or DSGet for additional processing.

There is a lot of information in Active Directory, if you know how to ask. Using custom DSQuery commands is like saying, "pretty please with sugar on top."

About the Author

Jeffery Hicks is an IT veteran with over 25 years of experience, much of it spent as an IT infrastructure consultant specializing in Microsoft server technologies with an emphasis in automation and efficiency. He is a multi-year recipient of the Microsoft MVP Award in Windows PowerShell. He works today as an independent author, trainer and consultant. Jeff has written for numerous online sites and print publications, is a contributing editor at Petri.com, and a frequent speaker at technology conferences and user groups.

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